SCIENTIST OF THE DAY


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JUNE 25
German physicist and chemist, Walther Nernst, was born on June 25, 1864. He developed the Heat Theorem which states that entropy of matter tends to annul itself as temperature lowers to absolute zero. The Heat Theorem was used in the development of the third law of thermodynamics.
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JUNE 24
British mathematician and astrophysicist, Fred Hoyle, was born on June 24, 1915. Theoretically, he predicted that the existence of certain energy levels in carbon atoms make life in our planet possible.
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JUNE 23
English mathematician, Alan Turing, was born on June 23, 1912. He was a pioneer in modern computer science. His contribution was the formalization of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation": the Turing machine.
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JUNE 22
German engineer, Konrad Zuse, was born on June 22, 1910. Pioneer in the field of computer science. His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled computer, the Z3, which became operational in 1941.
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JUNE 21
German astronomer, Maximilian Franz Wolf, was born on June 21, 1863. He discovered 248 asteroids. He was a pioneer in the use of astrophotography to detect asteroids automatically.
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JUNE 20
English biochemist, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, was born on June 20, 1861. He participated in the discovery of vitamins.
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JUNE 19
French mathematician and physicist, Blaise Pascal, was born on June 19, 1623. He established that the pressure exerted by a fluid in a container is transmitted with the same intensity in all directions.
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JUNE 18
French physician and naturalist, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran, was born on June 18, 1845. He studied parasitic protozoans as causative agents of infectious diseases.
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JUNE 17
American inventor, George Herman Babcock, was born on June 17, 1832. He invented a water tube steam boiler which provided a safer way to circulate water and produce steam.
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JUNE 16
American biologist, Barbara McClintock, was born on June 16, 1902. She discovered that mobile genetic elements, or “jumping genes,” could change or reverse the position from one chromosome to another. Her work led to the development of the directed mutation hypothesis.
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JUNE 15
American virologist, Thomas Huckle Weller, was born on June 15. He is famous for his discovery of the method to culture poliovirus in various tissues.
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JUNE 14
Austrian pathologist and biologist, Karl Landsteiner, was born on June 14, 1868. He discovered and typified blood groups A, B and O.
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JUNE 13
Scottish physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, was born on June 13, 1831. His most notable achievement was to formulate the electromagnetic theory and the kinetic theory of gases.
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JUNE 12
German-American biochemist, Fritz Albert Lipmann, was born on June 12, 1899. He participated in the discovery of coenzyme A in 1945.
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JUNE 11
French explorer and researcher, Jacques Cousteau, was born on June 11, 1910. He pioneered marine conservation and described underwater life.
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JUNE 10
American astronaut, James McDivitt, was born on June 10, 1929. He commanded the first U.S. spacewalk. Later, he became Manager of Lunar Landing Operations.
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JUNE 9
British mechanical and civil engineer, George Stephenson, was born on June 9, 1781. He built the world’s first public railway to use a steam locomotive.
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JUNE 8
British physicist and molecular biologist, Francis Harry Crick, was born on June 8, 1916. He is famous for being the co-discoverer of the molecular structure of DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid.
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JUNE 7
Hungarian physicist, Philipp von Lenard, was born on June 7, 1862. He studied cathode rays and discovered many of their properties.
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JUNE 6
German physicist, Carl Braun, was born on June 6, 1850. He developed the oscilloscope, an electronic instrument to display non-electrical signals.
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JUNE 5
Hungarian physicist, Dennis Gabor, was born on June 5, 1900. He invented holography, the advanced technique of photography that creates three- dimensional images.
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JUNE 4
French surgeon and economist. François Quesnay, was born on June 4, 1694. He established the physiocratic school. He sustained that a country´s economic power derives from agriculture.
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JUNE 3
German physiologist, Otto Loewi, was born on June 3, 1873. He discovered that acetylcholine transmits a nervous impulse. This led to the development of the theory of neural transmission through neurotransmitters.
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JUNE 2
American astronaut, Charles Conrad, was born on June 2, 1930. He was the third man to walk on the Moon. He participated in projects Gemini 5-11 and Skylab 2.
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JUNE 1
Scientist and soldier, Isaac Peral, was born on June 1, 1851. He designed the submarine that bears his name. This submarine, launched in 1888, had mechanisms to navigate underwater toward a predetermined direction.
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