On this day in 1777, Carl Gauss was born. The German mathematician, astronomer and physicist made contributions in many fields, including number theory, differential geometry, statistics, algebra and geodesics.
On this day in 1854, Jules Henri Poincaré was born. He formulated the Poincaré conjecture, a famous theorem that wasn’t solved until 2002-2003.
On this day in 1900, Jan Hendrik Oort was born. The Dutch astronomer promoted the study of radio astronomy. The Oort Cloud, a spherical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals that surrounds the Sun, is named for him.
On this day in 1896, Wallace Carothers was born. The American chemist led research on polymers, invented nylon and laid the foundations for the creation of neoprene.
On this day in 1900, Charles Francis Richter was born. The US seismologist developed the Richter scale for measuring the magnitude of earthquakes.
On this day in 1874, Guillermo Marconi was born. The Italian electrical engineer and inventor is known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission via wireless telegraph or radiotelegraphy.
On this day in 1743, Edward Cartwright was born. The British inventor created the first mechanical loom and wool carder.
On this day in 1858, Max Karl Ernest Planck was born. The German physicist is considered the founder of quantum theory and Planck’s constant.
On this day in 1807, Luigi Palmieri was born. The Italian volcanologist and meteorologist is best known for his scientific work on the eruptions of Vesuvius, earthquakes and meteorological phenomena.
On this day in 1768, French mathematician and physicist Jean Fourier was born. He is best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfers and vibrations. He was the first to offer a scientific explanation of the greenhouse effect.
On this day in 1851, Torakusu Yamaha was born. The Japanese watchmaker built the first portable reed organ and later became president of the Yamaha Corporation.
On this day in 1912, Glenn Seaborg was born. The US physicist developed the actinide concept and the arrangement of the actinide series in the periodic table of the elements.
On this day in 1940, Joseph Goldstein was born. The US doctor researched the relationship between elevated cholesterol levels in the blood, plaque deposits in the blood vessels and arteriosclerosis.
On this day in 1866, British physiologist Ernest Starling was born. He determined that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart.
On this day in 1728, Joseph Black was born. The Scottish physician, physicist and chemist studied the properties of carbon dioxide and determined the gas was not breathable.
On this day in 1452, Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. The original Renaissance Man, the artist and inventor was one of the first to make scientific discoveries regarding the role of arteriosclerosis in heart disease.
On this day in 1629, Dutch astronomer, physicist and mathematician Christiaan Huygens was born. Using the wave theory of light, he explained reflection, refraction and double refraction.
On this day in 1771, Richard Trevithick was born. The British inventor, engineer and builder designed the first working steam locomotive.
On this day in 1884, Otto Meyerhof was born. The German physiologist established the relationship between oxygen consumption and the muscles’ metabolism of lactic acid.
On this day in 1924, US geologist Bruce Charles Heezen was born. In the 1950s, he mapped the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, an underwater mountain range that bisects the ocean from north to south.
On this day in 1887, Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born. The Argentine physician and pharmacologist discovered the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar in animals.
On this day in 1919, John Presper Eckert was born. The American electrical engineer patented many inventions in electronics and is considered one of the pioneers of information technology.
On this day in 1805, Hugo von Mohl was born. As the author of research on protoplasm and cellular nuclei, the German physician and botanist is considered the father of cellular theory.
On this day in 1896, Sherman Fairchild was born. The US inventor created the first synchronized camera shutter and flash as well as new technologies for aerial cameras that were later used on the Apollo space missions.
On this day in 1928, American biologist James Dewey Watson was born. His discoveries with Francis Crick, along with the work of many other researchers, led to our understanding of the structure of the DNA molecule.
On this day in 1827, English surgeon Joseph Lister was born. After determining that infection caused high mortality rates among surgical patients, Lister developed antiseptics to reduce this threat.
On this day in 1922, Robert Henry Abplanalp was born. The US inventor designed the modern aerosol valve, still in use today.
On this day in 1798 Charles Wilkes was born. A US Navy officer, explorer, taxonomist and botanist, he is best known for leading an around-the-world scientific voyage known as the Wilkes Expedition.
On this day in 1793, British scientist and physician Thomas Addison was born. He discovered Addison’s disease, a degenerative disorder of the adrenal glands, and anemia.
On this day in 1578, English physician William Harvey was born. Harvey proposed the theory that the heart pumps blood through a circulatory system.